Throughout history, art has been intrinsically linked to human life, serving as a mean of expression and as a universal language in which beauty and aesthetics prevail. Major constituents of the arts include literature – including poetry , novels and short stories , and epics ; performing arts – among them music , dance , and theatre ; culinary arts such as baking , chocolatiering , and winemaking ; media arts like photography and cinematography , and visual arts – including drawing , painting , ceramics , and sculpting Some art forms combine a visual element with performance (e.g. film ) and the written word (e.g. comics ).
In the 17th and 18th centuries, the entirety of human knowledge was consolidated into a series of volumes known as the encyclopedia” which translates as complete instruction or complete knowledge.” Almost every major culture over the past 2,000 years has adopted the seven liberal arts.
Plato’s most famous student, Aristotle, stated that an educated man should be capable of considering and investigating any idea or concept thoroughly without necessarily embracing or dismissing it. Seneca the Younger , a Roman Stoic philosopher who lived from 4 BC to 65 AD, and advisor to Emperor Nero, was a strong advocate of the liberal arts.
The liberal arts also were emphasized heavily in Hellenistic Greece, described as the enkuklios paideia” or education in a circle.” They were divided into four scientific arts—music, arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy, and three humanities—grammar, logic, and rhetoric.
Through their mutual commitment to the role of working artists in the schools, the Fresno County Office of Education (FCOE) and the Fresno Arts Council (FAC) provide professional development to facilitate partnerships between K-6 teachers and artists.